Stephen-William-Hawking-was-born-on-8-January-1942-in-Oxford,-England.-His-parents’-house-was-in-north-London,-but-during-the-second-world-war-Oxford-was-considered-a-safer-place-to-have-babies.-When-he-was-eight,-his-family-moved-to-St-Albans,-a-town-about-20-miles-north-of-London.-At-eleven-Stephen-went-to-St-Albans-School,-and-then-on-to-University-College,-Oxford,-his-father’s-old-college.-Stephen-wanted-to-do-Mathematics,-although-his-father-would-have-preferred-medicine.-Mathematics-was-not-available-at-University-College,-so-he-did-Physics-instead.-After-three-years-and-not-very-much-work-he-was-awarded-a-first-class-honours-degree-in-Natural-Science.

Stephen-then-went-on-to-Cambridge-to-do-research-in-Cosmology,-there-being-no-one-working-in-that-area-in-Oxford-at-the-time.-His-supervisor-was-Denis-Sciama,-although-he-had-hoped-to-get-Fred-Hoyle-who-was-working-in-Cambridge.-After-gaining-his-Ph.D.-he-became-first-a-Research-Fellow,-and-later-on-a-Professorial-Fellow-at-Gonville-and-Caius-College.-After-leaving-the-Institute-of-Astronomy-in-1973-Stephen-came-to-the-Department-of-Applied-Mathematics-and-Theoretical-Physics,-and-since-1979-has-held-the-post-of-Lucasian-Professor-of-Mathematics.-The-chair-was-founded-in-1663-with-money-left-in-the-will-of-the-Reverend-Henry-Lucas,-who-had-been-the-Member-of-Parliament-for-the-University.-It-was-first-held-by-Isaac-Barrow,-and-then-in-1669-by-Isaac-Newton.

Stephen-Hawking-worked-on-the-basic-laws-which-govern-the-universe.-With-Roger-Penrose-he-showed-that-Einstein’s-General-Theory-of-Relativity-implied-space-and-time-would-have-a-beginning-in-the-Big-Bang-and-an-end-in-black-holes.-These-results-indicated-it-was-necessary-to-unify-General-Relativity-with-Quantum-Theory,-the-other-great-Scientific-development-of-the-first-half-of-the-20th-Century.-One-consequence-of-such-a-unification-that-he-discovered-was-that-black-holes-should-not-be-completely-black,-but-should-emit-radiation-and-eventually-evaporate-and-disappear.-Another-conjecture-is-that-the-universe-has-no-edge-or-boundary-in-imaginary-time.-This-would-imply-that-the-way-the-universe-began-was-completely-determined-by-the-laws-of-science.

His-many-publications-include-The-Large-Scale-Structure-of-Spacetime-with-G.F.R.-Ellis,-General-Relativity:-An-Einstein-Centenary-Survey,-with-W.-Israel,-and-300-Years-of-Gravity,-with-W.-Israel.-Stephen-Hawking-has-three-popular-books-published;-his-best-seller-A-Brief-History-of-Time,-Black-Holes-and-Baby-Universes-and-Other-Essays-and-most-recently-in-2001,-The-Universe-in-a-Nutshell.

Professor-Hawking-received-twelve-honorary-degrees,-was-awarded-the-CBE-in-1982,-and-was-made-a-Companion-of-Honour-in-1989.-He-was-the-recipient-of-many-awards,-medals-and-prizes-and-is-a-Fellow-of-The-Royal-Society-and-a-Member-of-the-US-National-Academy-of-Sciences.