Eric-Arthur-Blair,-better-known-by-his-pen-name-George-Orwell,-was-an-English-author-and-journalist.-His-work-is-marked-by-keen-intelligence-and-wit,-a-profound-awareness-of-social-injustice,-an-intense-opposition-to-totalitarianism,-a-passion-for-clarity-in-language,-and-a-belief-in-democratic-socialism.

In-addition-to-his-literary-career-Orwell-served-as-a-police-officer-with-the-Indian-Imperial-Police-in-Burma-from-1922-1927-and-fought-with-the-Republicans-in-the-Spanish-Civil-War-from-1936-1937.-Orwell-was-severely-wounded-when-he-was-shot-through-his-throat.-Later-the-organization-that-he-had-joined-when-he-joined-the-Republican-cause,-The-Workers-Party-of-Marxist-Unification-(POUM),-was-painted-by-the-pro-Soviet-Communists-as-a-Trotskyist-organization-(Trotsky-was-Joseph-Stalin’s-enemy)-and-disbanded.-Orwell-and-his-wife-were-accused-of-“rabid-Trotskyism”-and-tried-in-absentia-in-Barcelona,-along-with-other-leaders-of-the-POUM,-in-1938.-However-by-then-they-had-escaped-from-Spain-and-returned-to-England.

Between-1941-and-1943,-Orwell-worked-on-propaganda-for-the-BBC.-In-1943,-he-became-literary-editor-of-the-Tribune,-a-weekly-left-wing-magazine.-He-was-a-prolific-polemical-journalist,-article-writer,-literary-critic,-reviewer,-poet,-and-writer-of-fiction,-and,-considered-perhaps-the-twentieth-century’s-best-chronicler-of-English-culture.

Orwell-is-best-known-for-the-dystopian-novel-Nineteen-Eighty-Four-(published-in-1949)-and-the-satirical-novella-Animal-Farm-(1945)-—-they-have-together-sold-more-copies-than-any-two-books-by-any-other-twentieth-century-author.-His-1938-book-Homage-to-Catalonia,-an-account-of-his-experiences-as-a-volunteer-on-the-Republican-side-during-the-Spanish-Civil-War,-together-with-numerous-essays-on-politics,-literature,-language,-and-culture,-have-been-widely-acclaimed.

Orwell’s-influence-on-contemporary-culture,-popular-and-political,-continues-decades-after-his-death.-Several-of-his-neologisms,-along-with-the-term-“Orwellian”-—-now-a-byword-for-any-oppressive-or-manipulative-social-phenomenon-opposed-to-a-free-society-—-have-entered-the-vernacular.-